I noted with interest that Microsoft is delving into Rust for some things in the OS where they have memory related security holes.
We seem to need a language for each of the following:
- Desktop GUI
- Web front end
- Web back end
- Services (web backend without a front end)
- Data querying
- Systems (data serving, near the metal)
- CLI utils to listen to the GUI or the anti-GUI user or the scripters
- Script for the scripters
C and C++ remain relevant for the OS but Rust seems to be scratching at the surface.
The web backend and services is a mess of nearly every language on the planet. From JS to Ruby (wretch). Even here JS dominates with Node. The rest of the field is up for grabs.
Data querying is still SQL followed my a mishmash of things for querying noSQL datastores, usually some form of JSON over REST, though binary serialization in gRPC is growing for both data and services.
Systems are still primarily C and C++ but Java and C# play some Part in some database platforms. Go, Rust and others are also knocking on the door. Kubernetes is a good Go example, a tech that is red hot right now.
The CLI world is a free for all. Python is fast becoming a favorite for the automation and ML scripters. This category does seem to favor interpreted over compiled but even that is a pile of chaos and debate.
One thing is certain. There is only one master language in all of computing. Heaven help us. It's English. And there is no consistent compiler, interpreter or IDE for the foul thing.